STUDY GUIDE 4

Cognition
Preattentive Processes
Attentive Processes
Automatization
Expertise
Problem Solving
Algorithms
Heuristics
Creativity
Gardner
Errors in Cognition
Premature Commitment
Availability Heuristic
Sunk Cost Effect
Overestimation of Control
Gambler's Fallacy
Gambling

Intelligence
Spearman g & s
Gardner- Multiple Intelligences
Stemberg- Triarchic theory
IQ Test- Binet and Simon
Mean=100, Standard Dev. =15
Wechsler Tests
Raven's Progressive Matrices
Termin- Study of the Gifted
Evaluation of Tests
Reliability
Validity
Utility
Standardization

Development
Prenatal risks
Smoking
Drinking
Low-birth weight
Resilience- Why do some kids thrive- despite the odds?
Apgar test
Piaget- development of reasoning skills
Schemas
Assimilation
Accommodation
Equilibration
The Four Stages-distinct and qualitatively different
Sensorimotor
Crawling around building an appreciation for natural laws
Lack concept of Object Permanence, language and self recognition
Preoperational
Conquered earlier deficits but yet to master Conservation and egocentric thinking and operations
Concrete Operations
Now grasps conservation, etc. but not abstract or hypothetical thinking
Formal Operations
Can reason in the abstract and deductively
Postconventional
Limitations of Piaget' s theory
Given less complex tasks, kids show understanding of concepts earlier
Stages are not as discrete as stated
Ignores social and cultural factors
Lev Vigotsky- children can be nudged into higher stages by adults and peers
Zone of Proximal Development
Scaffolding
Kohlberg- The Development of Moral Reasoning
Stages
Moral Dilemmas
Preconventional- punishment
Conventional- What will people think?
Postconventional- Universal principles
But do people follow these principles- even if they recognize them?
Harlow- What do children need?
Nourishment or comfort?
Results of absence of comfort and affection.
Morasmus
Attachment
The Strange Situation
Secure attachment/insecure
Importance of exploration
Insecure attachments effects on later relationships
Temperament
Parenting Styles
The Family
Day care- Good thing? Bad thing?
Divorce
Timing
Effect on boys, girls
Should you stay together "for the kids"?
The Personal Fable of Teenagers
Carol Gilligan- Is Kohlberg's concern for Justice just a male thing?
Are women more aligned to a "caring' perspective?
How does this decision impact on other people?
Research shows that it is not a matter of gender but two separate "voices".