STUDY GUIDE 4
Errors in Cognition
Sunk Cost Effect
Overestimation of Control
Spearman g & s
Gardner- Multiple Intelligences
Stemberg- Triarchic theory
IQ Test- Binet and Simon
Mean=100, Standard Dev. =15
Raven's Progressive Matrices
Termin- Study of the Gifted
Evaluation of Tests
Resilience- Why do some kids thrive- despite the odds?
Piaget- development of reasoning skills
The Four Stages-distinct and qualitatively different
Crawling around building an appreciation for natural laws
Lack concept of Object Permanence, language and self recognition
Conquered earlier deficits but yet to master Conservation and egocentric thinking and operations
Now grasps conservation, etc. but not abstract or hypothetical thinking
Can reason in the abstract and deductively
Limitations of Piaget' s theory
Given less complex tasks, kids show understanding of concepts earlier
Stages are not as discrete as stated
Ignores social and cultural factors
Lev Vigotsky- children can be nudged into higher stages by adults and peers
Zone of Proximal Development
Kohlberg- The Development of Moral Reasoning
Conventional- What will people think?
Postconventional- Universal principles
But do people follow these principles- even if they recognize them?
Harlow- What do children need?
Nourishment or comfort?
Results of absence of comfort and affection.
The Strange Situation
Importance of exploration
Insecure attachments effects on later relationships
Day care- Good thing? Bad thing?
Effect on boys, girls
Should you stay together "for the kids"?
The Personal Fable of Teenagers
Carol Gilligan- Is Kohlberg's concern for Justice just a male thing?
Are women more aligned to a "caring' perspective?
How does this decision impact on other people?
Research shows that it is not a matter of gender but two separate "voices".