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BIO 1008 Seminar Objectives Unit 1:  Blood, the Heart and Blood Vessels

Chapter 11 Questions:
1.  What are the two basic components of whole blood?  Describe these physical characteristics of whole blood:  (a) temperature; (b) viscosity; and (c) pH.   What is a hematologist?

2.  Describe in general the structure and functions of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets (thrombocytes).

3.  Define:  venipuncture, arterial puncture, antigen (agglutinogen), antibody (agglutinin); hematocrit, cyanosis, embolism, and hypoxia.  Also, explain the difference between blood plasma and blood serum.

4.  Describe the role of erythropoietin (EPO) in the negative feedback mechanism involved in erythrocyte production.  What is the normal erythrocyte count (RBCs per mm3) for adult males and females?  Why do many individuals with advanced kidney disease become anemic? 

5.  Name the three steps involved in the process of hemostasis.  Describe the coagulation phase of the process of hemostasis paying particular attention to the roles of prothrombin and fibrinogen (see Figure 11-10).

6.  Describe the characteristics of erythrocytes in terms of (a) antigens on the cell membrane; and (b) types of antibodies in the blood plasma for the four major blood groups (types A, B, AB, and O).

7.  Describe the cause, symptoms, and general treatment for the condition hemolytic disease of the newborn, HDN (also known as erythroblastosis fetalis).

8.  Differentiate between the process of blood clot formation and the process of blood agglutination.    

Chapter 12 Questions:
9.  Trace the unidirectional flow of blood through the heart from the superior and inferior vena cavae (and coronary sinus) to the ascending aorta, including all heart chambers and heart valves in correct sequence! 

10.  Name the four valves of the heart, and describe their general function.  Explain how the "lub-dup" sounds of the heart are made.  What is a heart murmur?  

11.  Define the following terms associated with cardiophysiology: (a) systole; (b) diastole;       (c) coronary artery bypass graft (CABG); (d) coronary artery disease (CAD); (e) ventricular fibrillation (VF); (f) angina pectoris; (g) myocardial infarction (MI); (h) coronary arteriography; (i) automaticity (autorhythmicity); (j) tachycardia; (k) bradycardia.

12.  Diagram a normal ECG trace and explain the significance of the P, QRS, and T waves.  List the structures involved (the conducting system) in the spread of excitation through the heart in order of excitation.  See your Interactive Physiology (IP) CD: Cardiovascular module for an animation of the conduction system in action.



13.  Define these terms related to heart dynamics:  stroke volume; cardiac output; atrial (Bainbridge) reflex; Frank-Starling principle.  Explain the effects of the autonomic nervous system on cardiac output.

Chapter 13 Questions:
14.  Compare arteries (as a group), capillaries (as a group), and veins (as a group) in terms of their general structure and function.

15.  Trace the unidirectional flow of blood from the left great saphenous vein to the right radial artery, including all major vessels, heart chambers, and heart valves in the correct sequence! 

16.  Compare arteries (as a group), capillaries (as a group), and veins (as a group) in terms of their:  (a) blood pressure; (b) velocity of blood flow; and (c) total cross-sectional area.

17.  Describe the influences of capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP) and blood osmotic pressure (BOP) on the exchange of materials that occurs across capillary walls.  How do alterations in these pressures affect fluid shifts at the capillaries in general?

18.  Describe some features of the circulatory system that aid in the return of venous blood to the heart.

19. Describe the procedure used when taking someone’s blood pressure (See IP CD for a demonstration).  What are Korotkoff's sounds?

20.  Explain how the body regulates blood flow to the tissues by describing the concepts of:      (a) vasoconstriction, (b) vasodilation, (c) peripheral resistance, and (d) precapillary sphincter control of capillary blood flow.

21.  Explain how the aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors control blood pressure and blood flow to the tissues.   How do the carotid and aortic bodies (chemoreceptors) respond to changes in pH, plasma O2 and CO2 levels?  

22.  Describe the role of the renin-angiotensin mechanism as it relates to the control of blood pressure and blood volume (See IP CD for additional help).

23.  Describe the fetal modifications of the cardiovascular system.  Include in your answer a description of the umbilical arteries, umbilical vein, ductus venosus, ductus arteriosus, and foramen ovale.  What happens to these structures postnatally?    

Last Updated: 01/14/16

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